Mechanics of Composite Materials, Second Edition - Autar Kaw

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Mechanics of Composite Materials, Second Edition. Autar K Kaw University of South Florida, Tampa, USA. TABLE OF CONTENT...

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Mechanics of Composite Materials, Second Edition Autar K Kaw University of South Florida, Tampa, USA

TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION TO COMPOSITE MATERIALS Chapter Objectives........................................................................................................................... 1.1

Introduction ......................................................................................................................................

1.2

Classification..................................................................................................................................... 1.2.1 Polymer Matrix Composites...................................................................................................... 1.2.2 Metal Matrix Composites .......................................................................................................... 1.2.3. Ceramic Matrix Composites..................................................................................................... 1.2.4. Carbon-Carbon Composites .....................................................................................................

1.3

Recycling ...........................................................................................................................................

1.4

Mechanics Terminology...................................................................................................................

Summary ……………………………………………………………………………………….. Key Terms ……………………………………………………………………………………….. Exercise Set .................................................................................................................................................... References ...................................................................................................................................................... General References........................................................................................................................................ Videos .............................................................................................................................................................

2. MACROMECHANICAL ANALYSIS OF A LAMINA Chapter Objectives........................................................................................................................... 2.1

Introduction ......................................................................................................................................

2.2

Review of Definitions........................................................................................................................

2.3

2.4

2.1.1

Stress ...................................................................................................................................

2.2.2

Strain ...................................................................................................................................

2.2.3

Elastic Moduli .....................................................................................................................

2.2.4

Strain Energy.......................................................................................................................

Hooke's Law for Different Types of Materials .............................................................................. 2.3.1

Anisotropic Material............................................................................................................

2.3.2

Monoclinic Material ............................................................................................................

2.3.3

Orthotropic Material (Orthoganally Anisotropic)/ Specially Orthotropic...........................

2.3.4

Transversely Isotropic Material...........................................................................................

2.3.5

Isotropic Material ................................................................................................................

Hooke's Law for a Two Dimensional Unidirectional Lamina...................................................... 2.4.1

Plane Stress Assumption .......................................................................................................

2.4.2

Reduction of Hooke's Law in Three Dimensions to Two Dimensions ...............................................................................................................

2.4.3

Relationship of Compliance and Stiffness Matrix to Engineering Elastic Constants of a Lamina ......................................................................

2.5

Hooke's Law for a Two Dimensional Angle Lamina ....................................................................

2.6

Engineering Constants of an Angle Lamina ..................................................................................

2.7

Invariant Form of Stiffness and Compliance Matrices for an Angle Lamina ............................

2.8

Strength Failure Theories of an Angle Lamina ............................................................................. 2.8.1

Maximum Stress Failure Theory .........................................................................................

2.8.2

Strength Ratio......................................................................................................................

2.8.3

Failure Envelopes ................................................................................................................

2.8.4

Maximum Strain Failure Theory .........................................................................................

2.8.5

Tsai-Hill Failure Theory......................................................................................................

2.8.6

Tsai-Wu Failure Theory ......................................................................................................

2.8.7 2.9

Comparison of Experimental Results with Failure Theories...............................................

Hygrothermal Stresses and Strains in a Lamina........................................................................... 2.9.1

Hygrothermal Stress-Strain Relationship for a Unidirectional Lamina .............................

2.9.2

Hygrothermal Stress-Strain Relationship for an Angle Lamina.........................................

Summary ……………………………………………………………………………………….. Key Terms ……………………………………………………………………………………….. Exercise Set .................................................................................................................................................... References ...................................................................................................................................................... Appendix A: Matrix Algebra ....................................................................................................................... Appendix B: Transformation of Stresses and Strains................................................................................

3. MICROMECHANICAL ANALYSIS OF A LAMINA Chapter Objectives........................................................................................................................... 3.1

Introduction ......................................................................................................................................

3.2

Volume and Mass Fractions, Density and Void Content ..............................................................

3.2.1 Volume Fractions ............................................................................................................................. 3.2.2 Mass Fractions.................................................................................................................................. 3.2.3 Density ............................................................................................................................................. 3.2.4 Void Content .................................................................................................................................... 3.3

Evaluation of the Four Elastic Moduli ...........................................................................................

3.3.1 Strength of Materials Approach ......................................................................................................... 3.3.1.1. Longitudinal Young’s Modulus ........................................................................................... 3.3.1.2. Transverse Young’s Modulus .............................................................................................. 3.3.1.3. Major Poisson’s Ratio .......................................................................................................... 3.3.1.4. In-Plane Shear Modulus ........................................................................................................ 3.3.2 Semi-Empirical Models......................................................................................................................

3.3.2.1. Longitudinal Young’s Modulus ........................................................................................... 3.3.2.2. Transverse Young’s Modulus .............................................................................................. 3.3.2.3. Major Poisson’s Ratio .......................................................................................................... 3.3.2.4. In-Plane Shear Modulus ........................................................................................................ 3.3.3 Elasticity Approach ............................................................................................................................ 3.3.3.1. Longitudinal Young’s Modulus ........................................................................................... 3.3.3.2. Transverse Young’s Modulus .............................................................................................. 3.3.3.3. Major Poisson’s Ratio .......................................................................................................... 3.3.3.4. In-Plane Shear Modulus ........................................................................................................ 3.3.4 Elastic Moduli of Lamina with Transversely Isotropic Fibers........................................................... 3.4

Ultimate Strengths of a Unidirectional Lamina ............................................................................

3.4.1 Longitudinal Tensile Strength ............................................................................................................ 3.4.2 Longitudinal Compressive Strength ................................................................................................... 3.4.3 Transverse Tensile Strength ............................................................................................................... 3.4.4 Transverse Compressive Strength ...................................................................................................... 3.4.5 In-Plane Shear Strength...................................................................................................................... 3.5

Coefficients of Thermal Expansion of a Unidirectional Lamina ................................................ 3.5.1. Longitudinal Thermal Expansion Coefficient 3.5.2. Transverse Thermal Expansion Coefficient

3.5

Coefficients of Moisture Expansion of a Unidirectional Lamina................................................

Summary ……………………………………………………………………………………….. Key Terms ……………………………………………………………………………………….. Exercise Set .................................................................................................................................................... References ......................................................................................................................................................

4. MACROMECHANICAL ANALYSIS OF A LAMINATE

Chapter Objectives........................................................................................................................... 4.1

Introduction ......................................................................................................................................

4.2

Laminate Code..................................................................................................................................

4.3

Stress-Strain Relations for a Laminate ..........................................................................................

4.3.1 One Dimensional Isotropic Beam Stress-Strain Relations ................................................................. 4.3.2 Strain-Displacement Equations ......................................................................................................... 4.3.3 Strain and Stress in a Laminate .......................................................................................................... 4.3.4 Stress and Moment Resultants Related to Mid-Plane Strains and Curvatures....................................................................................................................... 4.4

In-Plane and Flexural Modulus of a Laminate..............................................................................

4.4.1 In-Plane Engineering Constants of a Laminate .................................................................................. 4.4.2 Flexural Engineering Constants of a Laminate .................................................................................. 4.5

Hygrothermal Effects in a Laminate ..............................................................................................

4.5.1 Hygrothermal Stresses and Strains..................................................................................................... 4.5.2 Coefficients of Thermal and Moisture Expansion of Laminates........................................................ 4.5.3 Warpage of Laminates ....................................................................................................................... Summary ……………………………………………………………………………………….. Key Terms ……………………………………………………………………………………….. Exercise Set .................................................................................................................................................... References ......................................................................................................................................................

5. FAILURE, ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF LAMINATES Chapter Objectives........................................................................................................................... 5.1

Introduction ......................................................................................................................................

5.2

Special Cases of Laminates..............................................................................................................

5.2.1 Symmetric Laminates ........................................................................................................................

5.2.2 Cross-Ply Laminates........................................................................................................................... 5.2.3 Angle-Ply Laminates.......................................................................................................................... 5.2.4 Antisymmetric Laminates .................................................................................................................. 5.2.5 Balanced Laminates ........................................................................................................................... 5.2.6 Quasi-Isotropic Laminates ................................................................................................................. 5.3

Failure Criteria For a Laminate .....................................................................................................

5.4

Design of Laminated Composite .....................................................................................................

5.5

Other Mechanical Design Issues .....................................................................................................

5.5.1 Sandwich Composites ........................................................................................................................ 5.5.2 Long Term Environmental Effects.................................................................................................... 5.5.3 Interlaminar Stresses.......................................................................................................................... 5.5.4 Impact…………………………………………………………………………………………… …. 5.5.5 Fracture Resistance............................................................................................................................. 5.5.6 Fatigue Resistance.............................................................................................................................. Summary ……………………………………………………………………………………….. Key Terms ……………………………………………………………………………………….. Exercise Set .................................................................................................................................................... References ......................................................................................................................................................

6.ANALYSIS OF BEAMS 6.1 Introduction ………………………………………………………………………. 6.2 Symmetrical Beams ……………………………………………………………. 6.3 Nonsymetrical Beams ………………………………………………………… Summary ………………………………………………………………………………………..

Key Terms ……………………………………………………………………………………….. Exercise Set ..................................................................................................................................................... References ....................................................................................................................................................... Index to Subjects

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