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Statistical Ideas and Methods Test Bank

Chapter 6

Questions 1 to 4: The table below shows the counts by gender and highest degree attained for 498 respondents in the General Social Survey.

| |No High |High |Junior |Bachelor |Graduate |Total | | |School |School |College |Degree |Degree | | | |Degree |Degree | | | | | |Male |49 |95 |11 |39 |23 |217 | |Female|52 |166 |14 |37 |12 |281 | |Total |101 |261 |25 |76 |35 |498 |

1. What percent of the sample were males? A. 43.6% B. 48.5% C. 56.4% D. 77.2%

2. What percent of the sample were males with no high school degree? A. 9.8% B. 20.3% C. 22.6% D. 48.5%

3. What percent of the sample did not graduate from high school? A. 18.5% B. 20.3% C. 22.6% D. 52.4%

4. What percent of females had a graduate degree? A. 2.4% B. 4.3% C. 7.0% D. 56.4%

Questions 5-8: The table below shows the responses from a sample of 680 people in the General Social Survey to the question, “Do you sometimes drink more than you think you should?”

|Gender |Yes |No |Total | |Male |151 |177 |328 | |Female |92 |260 |352 | |Total |243 |437 |680 |

5. What is the risk (or percentage) of men thinking they drank more than they should? A. 22.2% B. 35.7% C. 46.0% D. 62.1%

6. What is the risk (or percentage) of women thinking they drank more than they should? A. 13.5% B. 26.1% C. 35.7% D. 37.9%

7. What is the relative risk for women thinking they drank more than they should compared to men? A. 0.41 B. 0.57 C. 1.76 D. 2.41

8. What is the odds ratio for women thinking they drank more than they should compared to men? A. 0.41 B. 0.57 C. 1.76 D. 2.41

Questions 9: The table below shows the opinions of 321 respondents from the General Social Survey by whether they owned a gun (or not) and whether they favored (or opposed) a law requiring a permit to own a gun.

| |Gun Law | | |Own gun |Oppose |Favor |Total | |Yes |35 |110 |145 | |No |20 |156 |176 | |Total |55 |266 |321 |

Chi-Square = 9.137, DF = 1, P-Value = 0.003

9. Based on the chi-square statistic and p-value, one can conclude A. The difference between the support for the gun law between gun owners and non-gun owners is not statistically significant. B. The difference between the support for the gun law between gun owners and non-gun owners is statistically significant. C. The difference between the support for the gun law between gun owners and non-gun owners is not practically significant. D. The difference between the support for the gun law between gun owners and non-gun owners is practically significant.

Questions 22 and 23: A newspaper article reported that "Children who routinely compete in vigorous after-school sports on smoggy days are three times more likely to get asthma than their non-athletic peers." (Sacramento Bee, Feb 1, 2002, p. A1)

22. Of the following, which is the most important additional information that would be useful before making a decision about participation in school sports? A. Where was the study conducted? B. How many students in the study participated in after-school sports? C. What is the baseline risk for getting asthma? D. Who funded the study?

23. The newspaper also reported that "The number of children in the study who contracted asthma was relatively small - 265 of 3,535." From this information and the information given in the original quote, which of the following could NOT be computed? A. The baseline risk of getting asthma without participating in after- school sports. B. The overall risk of getting asthma for the children in this study. C. The relative risk of getting asthma for children who routinely participate in vigorous after-school sports on smoggy days and their non-athletic peers. D. All of the above could be computed.

Questions 24 to 26: A study done by the Center for Academic Integrity at Rutgers University surveyed 2116 students at 21 colleges and universities. Some of the schools had an "honor code" and others did not. Of the students at schools with an honor code, 7% reported having plagiarized a paper via the Internet, while at schools with no honor code, 13% did so. (Sacramento Bee, Feb 29, 2000, D1.)

24. For this study, the relative risk of a student having plagiarized a paper via the Internet at a school with no honor code, compared to a school with an honor code is: A. 13/7 = 1.857 B. 7/13 = 0.538 C. 13/87 = 0.149 D. 87/13 = 6.692

25. Which of the following statements about percent increase in risk is correct for this study? A. There is a 185.7% increase in the risk of plagiarism at a school with no honor code, compared to a school with an honor code. B. There is an 85.7% increase in the risk of plagiarism at a school with no honor code, compared to a school with an honor code. C. There is a 53.8% increase in the risk of plagiarism at a school with no honor code, compared to a school with an honor code. D. There is a 6% increase in the risk of plagiarism at a school with no honor code, compared to a school with an honor code.

26. Although the data provided are not sufficient to carry out a chi-square test of the relationship between whether or not a school has an honor code and whether or not a student would plagiarize a paper via the Internet, suppose such a test were to show a statistically significant relationship on the basis of this study. The correct conclusion would be: A. Because this is an observational study, it can be concluded that implementing an honor code at a college or university will reduce the risk of plagiarism. B. Because this is a randomized experiment, it can be concluded that implementing an honor code at a college or university will reduce the risk of plagiarism. C. Because this is an observational study and confounding variables are likely, it cannot be concluded that implementing an honor code at a college or university will reduce the risk of plagiarism. D. Because this is a randomized experiment and confounding variables are likely, it cannot be concluded that implementing an honor code at a college or university will reduce the risk of plagiarism.

32. A statistically significant relationship between two categorical variables is illustrated in the sample as one that A. is small enough that it is likely to have occurred in the observed sample even if there is no relationship in the population. B. is small enough that it is unlikely to have occurred in the observed sample if there is no relationship in the population. C. is large enough that it is likely to have occurred in the observed sample even if there is no relationship in the population D. is large enough that it is unlikely to have occurred in the observed sample if there is no relationship in the population

33. What is the primary purpose of doing a chi-square test? A. to determine if there is a significant relationship between two quantitative variables B. to determine if there is a significant relationship between two categorical variables C. to determine if there is a significant relationship between two continuous variables D. to estimate a population proportion

34. The relative risk of allergies for children of parents who smoke compared to children of parents who don’t smoke is 3.0. Suppose that the risk of allergies for the children of non-smokers is 0.15 (15%). What is the risk of allergies for the children of smokers? A. 3% B. 5% C. 30% D. 45%

Answers: A, A, B, B, C, B, B, A, B, C, A, A, B, C, D, B, D

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